Since solid-state transistors replaced vacuum tubes, the semiconductor industry has undergone amazing breakthrough advances that have changed our world. Without many of these improvements, we would not be able to work remotely and stay connected even during forced seclusion nor could we enjoy all other marvels that technology offers.
One example: the extraordinary gain in processing power that has been possible thanks to engineers’ continuous efforts to squeeze more and more transistors per unit area onto silicon chips.
Identified as Moore’s Law, it is the observation that transistor density can be doubled every 18 months or so and it has directed the development of microprocessor generations in the semiconductor industry for more than 50 years. Now, we’re reaching atomic and physical limits that require new techniques, such as the vertical stacking of layers.