Eco-friendly process drives rare earth recycling
A team of researchers from the University of Leuven revealed that trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride could be utilised as an environmentally friendly, sustainable hydrometallurgical method for separating transition metals such as copper, cobalt, iron, manganese and zinc from rare earths in neodymium–iron–boron or samarium–cobalt permanent magnets.
The development facilitates the sourcing and recycling of rare earth materials in old magnets, which is especially helpful since some of such elements are invaluable to the electronics industry and is constantly at risk of becoming scant.
Permanent rare-earth magnets are found in electronic devices ranging from hard drives to air conditioners and wind turbines and the usefulness of neodymium and samarium in the microelectronics industry is outweighed only by their lack of availability, reported Chemistry World in the Royal Society of Chemistry's news site.
The European Commission has placed these elements on a list of critical raw materials.
In fact, according to lead researcher Koen Binnemans, recycling could well complement mining to reduce the supply-risk problem, with China being the major provider of rare earth metals and increasingly self-serving for its growing internal market.
"Although less than 1 per cent of rare-earth elements are recycled currently, 20 per cent of global demand could be met in this way," estimated Binnemans who sees the new recycling process as a means for the western world to regain some independence of China.
The next on the research roadmap is to work on real-world samples from end-of-life industrial magnetics.
Patents abound about rare-earth elements recovery processes, for extracting distinct elements from rare-earth magnets, nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries, LCD screens, or even industrial waste-waters.
Of course, such recycling processes are big improvements over the most common scenario of disassembling rare-earth magnets only to crush them into new magnetic compounds. They look at chemically extracting the rare-earth elements for their re-use in other applications.
As for all other resources, the incentive to recycle in any given country will always be tied to the cost of extraction or to the perceived geopolitical threat of not being a producer.
But rare-earth metals may well be the trigger for better e-waste management, methodically retrieving old appliances and disused high-tech gadgets and turning e-waste into secondary mine deposits rather than shipping it away to far flung third-world countries.
Because the recovery of rare-earth elements goes well beyond simple scrap metal mechanics, it is also an opportunity to rethink the entire materials supply chain, from first extraction to design-for-recyclability, end-of-life collection and full disassembly for optimum recycling.
Considering the sheer volume of consumer electronics that few companies like Samsung, Apple, Nokia, or LG manufacture, it is surprising that these companies would not put in place themselves good design-for-recyclability practices to work hand-in-hand with recycling companies and get a direct benefit, instead of throwing the issue over the fence to sales-points collection and third-party e-waste management companies.
Some industrial companies like Mitsubishi Electric and Hitachi have come up with disassembly robots for their own air-conditioning appliances and for hard disks, speeding up the recovery of rare-earth magnets for their re-use as raw crushed material by partner magnet manufacturers.
This is a small green step in the right direction, certainly encouraged by Japan's insularity and little resources.
Since these rare-earth elements, as well as many other materials, will increasingly become of strategic importance, governments could tax more heavily producers of difficult-to-repair, difficult-to-recycle products.
Alternatively, consumer electronics could be tagged with repairability/recyclability labels, very much like the energy rating labels commonly found on white goods and home appliances.
In Europe the eco tax has been put in place as a form of collective contribution towards paying the costs of e-waste collection and recycling, but adding a small repairability/recyclability label would also give a chance for consumers to raise their vote with regard to the recycling issue. This may drive more businesses to offer appropriate repair services (at competitive prices rather than at extortion rates).
In the meantime, you can always consult www.ifixit.com for repairability ratings or to find a repair manual.
- Julien Happich
EE Times Europe
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